Incandescent light bulb
The filament is enclosed in a glass bulb with a vacuum or inert gas to protect the filament from oxidation. They require no external electrical equipment, have low manufacturing costs, and work equally well on either alternating current direct current. As a result, the incandescent bulb became widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting.
Heat lamps are made for uses such as incubators lava lamps, and the Easy-Bake Oven toy. A common type of incandescent lightbulb consists of a long thin cylindrical envelope containing a small amount of mercury vapor at its inner end and filled with argon or krypton gas at the outer end. When electricity passes through this device, electrons collide with atoms of the metal inside the bulb causing them to emit ultraviolet radiation which then causes the mercury atoms to glow red hot. This process produces enough radiant power to illuminate a room.
The first practical light bulb was invented by British scientist Sir John Herschel in 1820. He used a carbonized silk thread as filament for his lamp. The next year he improved on this design with a tungsten wire coated with platinum which produced more intense light but also caused it to burn away too quickly. In 1823, French physicist Étienne-Gaspard Becquerel discovered that when heated, certain materials emit radiation at different wavelengths depending upon their chemical composition.
Early pre-commercial research
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison's shop in Menlo Park Ebenezer Kinnersley demonstrated heating a wire to incandescence.
Humphry Davy used what he described as "a battery of immense size", consisting of 2,000 cells housed in the basement of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, to create an incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point. James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland. The earliest known attempt to produce an incandescent light is attributed to Humphrey Davy who experimented with electrical lighting around 1800. In 1802, Davy published a paper describing how electricity might be generated from chemical reactions. This led him to investigate whether there was a way to generate heat directly from electricity.
What was the first electric light?
Original carbon-filament bulb from Thomas Edison 's shop in Menlo Park Ebenezer Kinnersley demonstrated heating a wire to incandescence.
How do you make an incandescent light?
Humphry Davy used what he described as "a battery of immense size", consisting of 2,000 cells housed in the basement of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, to create an incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum , chosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point .
What are the advantages of using platinum or iridium wires?
The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity.
What is an electric light?
SEM image of the tungsten filament of an incandescent light bulb An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated until it glows.
What is a Bulb Socket?
A bulb socket provides mechanical support and electrical connections.
What are the energy efficiency of incandescent bulbs?
Incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than other types of electric lighting, converting less than 5% of the energy they use into visible light.
What Are Heat Lamps?
Heat lamps are made for uses such as incubators lava lamps , and the Easy-Bake Oven toy.
How long do Incandescent bulbs last?
Incandescent bulbs typically have short lifetimes compared with other types of lighting; around 1,000 hours for home light bulbs versus typically 10,000 hours for compact fluorescents and 20,000–30,000 hours for lighting LEDs.
Who is Sir Joseph Wilson Swan?
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan Joseph Swan (1828–1914) was a British physicist and chemist.
What is electric light?
In 1850, he began working with carbonized paper filaments in an evacuated glass bulb.
What is the Tungsram Bulb?
This was the first light bulb that used a filament made from tungsten instead of carbon.
What was the problem with metal filaments?
Metal filaments had the property of breaking and re-welding, though this would usually decrease resistance and shorten the life of the filament.
What is osmium used for?
From 1898 to around 1905, osmium was also used as a lamp filament in Europe.
What is the difference between a tungsten filament and an electric wire?
Filling a bulb with an inert gas argon nitrogen slows down the evaporation of the tungsten filament compared to operating it in a vacuum.
What are the Energy Savings of incandescent lights?
Compared to other incandescent (non-halogen) light types, incandescent halogen lamps will emit the same amount of light using less power, and a more constant output over time, with little dimming.
What is Luminous efficacy?
Luminous efficacy of a light source is the ratio of the visible light to the total power input to the source, such as a lamp.
What is luminous efficiency?
The luminous efficiency is defined as the ratio of the luminous efficacy to the theoretical maximum luminous efficacy of 683 lpw for green light.
Read our article about Electric Switch.